Raportul pe 2016 al Secretarului General NATO este un moment foarte asteptat.
Documentul de 126 de pagini este esential pentru definirea misiunilor prezente si viitoare ale celei mai puternice aliante politico-militare din istorie, din care si Romania face acum parte.
Infiintata in 1949, NATO se angajeaza sa ramana la fel de solida si adaptata rapid la noile provocari majore.
Pe fondul evolutiilor nefavorabile de securitate, a cresterii agresivitatii militare a Rusiei, a dezvoltarii ample de amenintari neconventionale, aparitia terorismului fundamentalist islamic in marile capitale europene, plus fenomenul populist-nationalist sprijinit masiv de forte anti-occidentale.
Spre deosebire de UE, NATO ramane ferm angajata in solidaritatea deplina a celor 28 de aliati, pentru protejarea teritoriilor si populatiilor tarilor membre.
Actiuni concrete se desfasoara acum pe Flancul Estic. Mai multe tari aliate, impreuna cu cea mai mare putere militara a lumii – SUA – desfasoara ample exercitii cu amplasarea de tehnica militara si trupe intr-o logica rotationala pentru descurajarea agresiunii din Est.
Secretarul general al NATO, Jens Stoltenberg, a avertizat luni că este “indispensabil pentru relațiile transatlantice” ca membrii Alianței să-și majoreze cheltuielile în materie de apărare, așa cum a solicitat noul președinte al SUA Donald Trump, relatează AFP.
Stoltenberg subliniază în raportul anual al NATO, făcut public luni, că în 2016 doar cinci state membre au alocat apărării cel puțin 2% din PIB, iar începând din acest an trebuie intensificate eforturile în acest sens. “Acest lucru este indispensabil pentru ca legătura transatlantică, fundamentul Alianței noastre, să rămână solidă”, insistă secretarul general al NATO.
Raportul atrage din nou atenția asupra dezechilibrului dintre SUA și restul statelor membre ale Alianței în privința cheltuielilor cu apărarea, într-un context în care noul președinte american a făcut apel în repetate rânduri la membrii europeni ai NATO să-și “îndeplinească obligațiile financiare”, într-o aluzie la pragul de 2% din produsul intern brut.
Conform raportului, cheltuielile militare ale SUA din 2016, în sumă totală de 679 miliarde de dolari, au reprezentat 68% din totalul bugetelor de apărare ale celor 28 de state membre, în timp ce PIB-ul SUA nu reprezintă decât 48% din avuția națională cumulată a celorlalte aliate.
“Modul cum sunt împărțite poverile în interiorul Alianței încă nu este echitabil”, a punctat Stoltenberg.
În afară de SUA, care au alocat apărării 3,36% din PIB, doar Marea Britanie (cu 2,17%), Polonia (cu 2,01%), Estonia (cu 2,18%) și Grecia (cu 2,36%) au atins obiectivul asumat în septembrie 2014 de liderii Alianței Nord-Atlantice, relevă estimările pe anul trecut.
Totuși, în semn că statele membre au început să investească mai mult în apărare, după ani la rând de reduceri de buget, “cheltuielile cu apărarea ale aliaților europeni și Canadei au crescut cu 3,8%, reprezentând o sumă de circa 10 miliarde de dolari”, iar “23 de țări aliate și-au sporit aceste cheltuieli în mod real”, se mai arată în raport, potrivit Agerpres.
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg published his annual report today (Monday 13 March), showing how in 2016 the Alliance, “took further steps to keep our almost one billion citizens safe.”
The report highlights how NATO is adapting to the new security environment by strengthening its collective defence and projecting stability beyond its borders.
Four multinational battlegroups are being deployed to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. At least seventeen Allied countries will contribute troops.
While enchancing its deterrence measures in the eastern part of the Alliance, NATO has had political dialogue with Russia and held three meetings of the NATO-Russia Council last year.
The Secretary General underlined how the Alliance is doing more to project stability, such as by training local forces in Afghanistan and Iraq to fight terrorism. NATO has also sent training teams to countries including Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia.
NATO AWACS planes are supporting the Global Coalition to Counter-ISIL and a new Intelligence Division has been created by NATO to deepen its understanding of the threats it faces.
Mr Stoltenberg explained how the Alliance has turned a corner on defence spending. In 2016 twenty-three Allies increased their defence expenditure in real terms by 3.8 %, which added up to ten billion US dollars.
The Secretary General confirmed only five Allies spent 2% or more of GDP on defence in 2016. He said, “It is realistic that all Allies should reach this goal. All Allies have agreed to it at the highest level and it can be done.”
Mr Stoltenberg pointed out European Allies together spent 2% of GDP on defence as recently as the year 2000. He was encouraged that Romania plans to reach 2% this year and both Latvia and Lithuania expect to do the same in 2018.
The Secretary General encouraged Allies to redouble their efforts on defence spending and said it would be a key focus at the upcoming meeting of NATO leaders.
The Secretary General’s Annual Report 2016
The annual report provides an overview of how NATO protected its citizens and projected stability in 2016. It includes details on how NATO is enhancing deterrence and defence, engaging in dialogue, investing in security, improving capabilities, supporting the fight against terrorism, building relationships, sharing expertise, advancing the role of women in peace and security, and adapting as an institution.
Below you will find short descriptions of – as well as direct links to – the elements of the annual report.
- For all who serve
- Deterrence, Defence & Dialogue
- Investing in Security
- Improving Capabilities
- Projecting Stability
- Projecting Stability: Cultivating Partnerships
- Promoting the Role of Women
At no time since the end of the Cold War has the NATO Alliance faced greater challenges to our security than it does today.
But NATO is the most successful alliance in history because it has been able to change as the world has changed. For the first 40 years of its life, the Alliance’s focus was collective defence. When the Berlin Wall came down, our focus shifted to crisis management beyond our borders – intervening to stop large-scale bloodshed and keep the peace in the Western Balkans, fighting terrorism in Afghanistan, and tackling piracy off the Horn of Africa.
For All Who Serve
NATO’s commitment to safeguarding the freedom and security of all its members is made possible by the service of men and women from across its member and partner countries.
In 2016, tens of thousands of Allied service members were deployed on land, in the air, and at sea to provide for NATO’s defence and to project stability beyond NATO’s borders. Whether engaged in security operations, military exercises, or training missions, the security and stability of the Alliance would not be possible without their contributions.
NATO recognises the dedication of all who serve. The Alliance owes a debt of gratitude to every man and woman in service for the risks they take and the sacrifices they and their families make while serving NATO’s common purposes and values.
Preventing conflict means being able to deter and defend against any potential security threat. In recent years, NATO has responded to a series of new challenges with the largest reinforcement of its collective defence in a generation. At the same time, as part of an overall approach to its collective security, the Alliance seeks to improve transparency and reduce the risk of escalation by engaging in meaningful dialogue with Russia.
NATO is committed to defending its nearly one billion citizens in Europe and North America. Fulfilling this commitment requires that Allies understand the changing security environment, agree on policies for how to address the challenges and threats, develop and invest in the capabilities required to implement those policies, and resolve to use their capabilities when required. Each of these elements is essential for NATO to fulfil its purpose of safeguarding the freedom and security of all its members.
NATO’s modern defence posture is based on an effective combination of cutting-edge weapons systems and platforms and forces trained to work together seamlessly. As important as it is that Allies invest in defence, it is also critical that those funds are invested in the right capabilities. NATO plays an important role in assessing what capabilities the Alliance needs, setting targets for national or collective development of capabilities, and facilitating national, multinational and collective capability development and innovation.
Providing for the security of the Alliance requires not only a strong deterrence and defence posture but also the ability to project stability and strengthen security beyond NATO’s borders. For NATO, this involves a range of activities including providing training and support to countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan, conducting or contributing to missions on land, at sea and in the air, and cultivating relationships with partners around the world.
NATO maintains a broad and diverse network of partnerships with countries in the Euro-Atlantic region and beyond. In 2016, partners continued to be involved in many of the core activities that take place at NATO.
Partners have been integrated across NATO’s activities and agenda, often contributing sideby- side with Allies. Through its partnerships, NATO helps countries to strengthen their ability to safeguard their own security, both at home and as part of international missions.
At the Warsaw Summit in July 2016, NATO leaders reiterated their belief that the empowerment of women at NATO and in the military make the Alliance stronger. If peace is to be sustainable, it must be inclusive. To that end, NATO and its partners are working together to promote the role of women in peace and security as part of their commitment to the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 and related Resolutions.
NATO is a political-military alliance of 28 countries. The Organization itself includes a number of structures that support the everyday work of the Alliance. Throughout 2016, NATO continued to implement innovative ways of working in order to improve its overall flexibility, effectiveness, efficiency and accountability despite a challenging resource environment. NATO also continues to adapt its processes and structures to ensure that it is adaptable by design and inherently flexible, resilient, and responsive to any threat. To this end, NATO continued to rigorously pursue improvements to better integrate resources and work strands, including by adopting modern and innovative approaches and ways of working. These efforts will help improve prioritisation and better align resources so that the workforce, both civilian and military, is well placed to support the achievement of NATO’s top priorities.